Allergy is most often manifested in young children rash, while older ones occur breathing difficulties, runny nose and cough.
How do you diagnose an allergy?
When a rash appears on the child's body and we are not sure what the cause is, we should show the child to a pediatrician. The doctor will try to determine if the rash is allergic and take appropriate treatment, and if he sees a need, he will refer the baby to the allergist.
The allergist during the visit will carefully examine the child and conduct an interview to determine potential allergens. If the treatment fails, he or she will direct the child to perform allergy tests to determine what causes the allergy.
When are the tests carried out and how are they carried out?
The test is performed by taking blood and is intended for children under 3 years old. The blood sample taken is carefully examined and the IgE antibody test for allergens is checked. In this way, general tests are carried out, which will indicate a group of allergens, rather than a single product, e.g. the test will show that the child does not accept all dairy products, and in fact maybe the child is only allergic to yogurt.
Skin point tests
They are made in children over 3 years of age due to the stress and pain that accompanies the test. The nurse on the handle (inner part of the forearm) writes numbers that tell the allergen, then applies drops containing the allergen (one drop contains histamine - the appearance of an allergic reaction in this place indicates a well-done test) and then the place of each drop is punctured with a needle (for each a new sterile needle is used).
The child must sit for 20 minutes so that the drops do not flow and do not touch (preferably without moving). After the required time, the results are read. Comparing with the control drop (from histamine) the remaining bubbles (if they appear) it is determined if the allergen is allergic. The bubble should be large and red enough to indicate an allergy.
Skin patch tests
Patch tests are performed in children over 3 years of age. The doctor directs this type of tests when the child has symptoms of allergies and the point test showed nothing.
Patch tests differ not only in the method of their performance, but also in the fact that you can find allergies to an allergen, which manifests itself in a subsequent reaction, not immediate, as in the case of spot tests.