Sun allergy symptoms are uncomfortable because they are itchy and the skin appears to burn, when experienced in hot weather. Keeping children out of the sun as much as possible is the most accurate avoidance advice, but it is also necessary to take the appropriate protective measures to prevent sunlight from damaging their skin.
To avoid the appearance of reactions in the skin of children due to the allergy to the sun, which cause itching and, in some cases, pain, it is necessary to follow a series of tips and follow the appropriate protection measures.
1. Go to the specialist if you have suffered an allergic reaction, to find out what they are due to and apply a specific treatment.
2. Use high protection sunscreen for children not scented, even on cloudy days. The cream should be applied at least 20 minutes before being exposed to the sun and its application should be repeated frequently (approximately every 2 hours) or after swimming or playing sports (even when using waterproof creams).
3. Sunbathing with caution and gradually.
4. Do not sunbathe after spraying with colognes or perfumes.
5. Be careful with vegetation, especially if exposure to the sun occurs in meadows, forests or parks.
6. Consult the prospectus, in case children are taking medication, to know the possibilities of photosensitivity reactions and, in case of doubt, consult the doctor.
7. Wear hats and clothing that protect from the sun's rays. Keep in mind that white fabrics, especially cotton, lightweight flannel, and fabrics that cling to the skin, don't offer much protection. The more compact the texture of the clothing, the more sun protection it offers.
8. Avoid exposure as much as possiblebetween 11:00 and 16:00, as well as reflected light (water, snow, sand), which is as harmful as direct light.
- In solar urticaria, symptoms appear within minutes of sun exposure. The skin becomes red and scattered hives appear, which tend to clump together to form plaques, which generally disappear after a few hours when exposure ceases. Occasionally, especially severe cases have also experienced dizziness, choking, and headache after exposure to large areas of the body.
- In phototoxic reactions, the first thing that is observed is an exaggerated sunburn, which affects the areas of the skin usually exposed. They are inflammatory reactions that produce skin lesions, they are due to the transformation of certain chemical substances present in the skin by the action of light. The reddened area also has a stinging or burning sensation, which can later lead to hyperpigmentation. It usually improves after a week. If the reaction is very strong, blisters may even form. These types of reactions are much more frequent than photoallergic ones and can appear from the first exposure to the chemical substance.
- In photoallergic reactions, the appearance of eczematous-type hives is common, which can extend beyond the irritated area. Despite suppressing the photosensitizer, they can persist for several weeks. Cross-reactions between different structurally related allergens are possible, they do not depend on the concentration of the photosensitizing agent or the exposure time, and they take longer to disappear, that is, 2 to 3 weeks. Subsequent exposures will re-trigger the injuries within the first 48 hours.
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