Speech therapy is a health discipline that is responsible for preventing, diagnosing, evaluating and correcting speech, language, voice, hearing, and swallowing disorders.
But, What are the most common pathologies in childhood related to speech therapy? In Guiainfantil.com We explain some of the most frequent ones.
Dislalia:It is one of the most common disorders related to speech, and it means "bad talk." It is defined as an alteration in the articulation of a phoneme or a group of phonemes. If the child mispronounces a single phoneme we are talking about simple dyslalia, while if there are several we would be talking about a multiple dyslalia.
To correct this problem, a speech therapy intervention must be carried out, which consists of an indirect intervention and a direct intervention. During the indirect intervention, aspects such as breathing, relaxation, murmur and orofacial motor skills will be worked on.
Once these aspects have been worked on, the direct intervention that consists of influencing aspects such as articulation of the isolated phoneme, repetition of words and repetition of phrases among others.
Dysphonia:The voice is the sound that is produced in the larynx from exhaled lung air. This sound is amplified and modified in the resonance cavities and articulated in the oral cavity.
We call dysphonia the alteration of one or several acoustic qualities of the voice (frequency, intensity, timbre and duration). This pathology is more common in children than we all think. It is important to bear in mind that we should not think that if a child suffers from dysphonia, it is necessarily because they scream too much. There are different causes that can produce this alteration. Some of them are the following:
- Vocal abuse
- Pathological family history
- Respiratory conditions
- Emotional and psychological aspects
- Inappropriate vocal models
With speech therapy, aspects such as posture, relaxation, breathing, and voice projection are worked on. ANDThis treatment must be accompanied by vocal hygiene guidelines for both the child and their families, such as maintaining an adequate state of hydration or avoiding raising the voice in noisy environments, among others.
ADHD:One of the most common problems that can appear in childhood is attention deficit, which is a neurobiological disorder that appears in childhood and involves a pattern of attention deficit, hyperactivity and / or impulsivity that may or may not be associated with other comorbid disorders.
Due to this problem, other abilities may be affected, such as memory, perception, and literacy. Children with this disorder they can present communication problems as they grow. These disorders appear especially in school if they do not receive enough attention in the area of language. This is where the figure of the speech therapist intervenes.
Impaired reading and writing:Reading and writing are two extremely relevant learnings at the beginning of children's schooling. Its correct acquisition will influence the child's school success and also his communication skills. Therefore, it is important to detect these alterations early in order to intervene as soon as possible and avoid later problems.
Among the writing disorders, we highlight dyslexia, which is a reading disorder that is not due to intellectual disability or physical or psychological problems.
On the other hand, in the area of writing we can differentiate dysgraphia and dysorthography. In the first case, the child presents an alteration in the form or content of the writing; in the second, it presents a specific and significant deficit in the area of spelling.
Language delay: Language delay is a disturbance in language development characterized by a lag in the acquisition of language skills in relation to the child's chronological age, with no biological or psychological causes to explain it. It is a very common pathology.
If your child presents this alteration, it is important to go to the speech therapist to work on aspects such as the prerequisites to language (orofacial motor skills, auditory discrimination, breathing, relaxation and breath), the components of speech and language (articulation, grammar, pragmatics and language non-verbal), expression and comprehension and thus prevent later problems in the field of written language.
If you detect that your child may present any of these alterations, do not hesitate to consult your pediatrician and a speech therapist to assess the need for treatment.
You can read more articles similar to Most common language problems in children, in the Language category - On-site speech therapy.