Small child

Atopic dermatitis in a child

Atopic dermatitis in a child (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized primarily severe itching and dry skin. Most often, the disease develops in young children. It can be recognized even in babies who are several months old. The disease can disappear spontaneously at any time, but it can also last until the end of life.

To date, the cause of AD is not known, but the occurrence of this ailment is very often combined with various types allergies (food, inhalation) and also with genetic background. People from families who already have similar abnormalities are most at risk from AD.

What are the symptoms of AD?

In infancy (0-2 years) AD is manifested by occurrence eczema outbreaks (scabs, erosions) mainly on the face (so-called painted cheeks) and hairy skin (head). Spontaneous cure at this stage occurs in about 50% of children.

In preschool and childhood (3-11 years) AD is manifesting lumpy, itchy eruptions (excessive thickening of the epidermis as a result of scratching may occur), occurs mainly in the bending of the joints (under the elbows and knees), wrists, neck, hands. Lymph nodes increase very often. The changes may go away on their own or remain, even creating skin discolorations.

Other symptoms include:

  • face pallor
  • double folds of eyelids,
  • hay fever,
  • bronchial asthma
  • conjunctivitis,
  • frequent skin burns under the diaper.

First of all, the basis for diagnosing AD is visit the doctor. It is the specialist who, after collecting the relevant data, can determine the disease. The primary issue is family interview (if someone had previously suffered from this type of ailment), then it is recommended to perform skin tests and blood tests.

How to treat a child with AD? Skin care with atopic dermatitis

The basic and sometimes sufficient element of treatment is proper skin care for children with AD. Care is primarily to restore proper hydration and strengthening of the skin. The first step is to use emollients that are designed to reduce water loss and reduce skin itching.

Emollients should be used as bath accessories and after washing the baby. Doctors also often recommend bathing in linseed and potassium permanganate.

Every day it is worth limiting contact with water and soap, which additionally dry the skin in favor of special synthetic detergents for people with AD.

Appropriate clothing and temperature

A child with AD should wear clothes of well-drained and non-irritating materials, light and airy so as not to exacerbate the existing itch. Do not overheat children, the optimal ambient temperature is 18-20 degrees. Clothes, towels and bedding should be washed in mild anti-allergic detergents without using rinsing liquids, however, rinsing several times is recommended.

Diet and atopic dermatitis in a child

Starting from a sick newborn, breastfeeding is recommended as long as possible (if necessary, eliminate some products from the mother's diet - aggravating the symptoms in the child). In older children, it is important to observe and eliminate products that exacerbate allergic conditions from daily jays.

Pharmacology and atopic dermatitis in a child

Regular medical appointments are the basis for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. The doctor (if care alone is not sufficient) introduces medications, starting from the weakest and checks the patient's reactions. Usually glucocorticosteroids (antipruritic and anti-inflammatory) are used in the treatment, which, unfortunately, can be associated with side effects, so they are not actually used in children (only in extreme cases).

Wet - wrap therapy

When the above care methods are insufficient, wet - wrap therapy is used. This therapy involves the implementation of cotton dressings after a previously applied emollient (in extreme cases glucocorticosteroids are applied). Wrapping takes place in the hospital and its continuation at home.

The overarching goal in the case of atopic dermatitis is the treatment and care of diseased skin - this should never be forgotten. The disease is very troublesome especially for small children. Sometimes itching can be unbearable, so let's do everything to ease the toddler. Untreated atopic dermatitis can be very serious, therefore you should react as soon as possible and strictly follow your doctor's instructions.